# 7 n-step Bootstrapping

## 7.1 $n$-step TD Prediction

$n$-step TD for estimating $V \approx v_\pi$

Example 7.1: $n$-step TD Methods on the Random Walk

## 7.2 $n$-step Sarsa

$n$-step Sarsa for estimating $Q \approx q_*$, or $Q \approx q_\pi$ for a given $\pi$

## 7.5 Off-policy Learning Without Importance Sampling: The $n$-step Tree Backup Algorithm

$n$-step Tree Backup for estimating $Q \approx q*$, or $Q \approx q_\pi$ for a given $\pi$

## 7.6 *A Unifying Algorithm: $n$-step $Q(\sigma)$

Off-policy $n$-step $Q(\sigma)$ for estimating $Q \approx q*$, or $Q \approx q_\pi$ for a given $\pi$